Publications


Nuclear-Localised Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Channels Mediate Symbiotic Calcium Oscillations

Charpentier M, Sun J, Martins TV, Radhakrishnan GV, Findlay K, Soumpourou E, Thouin J, Véry AA, Sanders D, Morris RJ, Oldroyd GED, 27 MAY 2016, Science : 1102-1105

Nuclear-associated Ca2+ oscillations mediate plant responses to beneficial microbial partners—namely, nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria that colonize roots of legumes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that colonize roots of the majority of plant species. A potassium-permeable channel is known to be required for symbiotic Ca2+ oscillations, but the calcium channels themselves have been unknown until now. We show that three cyclic nucleotide–gated channels in Medicago truncatula are required for nuclear Ca2+oscillations and subsequent read more…

The receptor Kinase CERK1 has Dual Functions in Symbiosis and Immunity Signalling

Zhang, X, Dong, W, Sun, J, Feng, F, Deng, Y, He, Z, Oldroyd, G and Wang, E (2015) Plant Journal 81:258-267

The establishment of symbiotic interactions between mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria and their legume hosts involves a common symbiosis signalling pathway. This signalling pathway is activated by Nod factors produced by rhizobia and these are recognised by the Nod factor receptors NFR1/LYK3 and NFR5/NFP. Mycorrhizal fungi produce lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) similar to Nod factors, as well as short-chain chitin oligomers (CO4/5), implying commonalities in signalling during mycorrhizal and rhizobial associations. Here we read more…

Host-specific Nod-factors Associated with Medicago truncatula Nodule Infection Differentially Induce Calcium Influx and Calcium Spiking in Root Hairs.

Morieri, G, Martinez, E, Jarynowski, A, Driguez, H, Morris, R, Oldroyd, G and Downie, JA (2013). New Phytologist 200: 656-662

Rhizobial nodulation (Nod) factors activate both nodule morphogenesis and infection thread development during legume nodulation. Nod factors induce two different calcium responses: intra-nuclear calcium oscillations and a calcium influx at the root hair tip. Calcium oscillations activate nodule development; we wanted to test if the calcium influx is associated with infection. Sinorhizobium meliloti nodL and nodF mutations additively reduce infection of Medicago truncatula. Nod-factors made by the nodL mutant lack read more…

Biotechnological Solutions to the Nitrogen Problem

Oldroyd, G and Dixon, R (2014). Current Opinion in Biotechnology 26:19-24

The availability of nitrogen is one of the major limiting factors to crop growth. In the developed world, farmers use unsustainable levels of inorganic fertilisers to promote crop production. In contrast, in the developing world inorganic fertilisers are often not available and small-holder farmers suffer the resultant poor yields. Finding alternatives to inorganic fertilisers is critical for sustainable and secure food production. Bacteria and Archaea have evolved the capability to read more…

Synthetic Biology Approaches to Engineering the Nitrogen Symbiosis in Cereals

Rogers, C and Oldroyd, G (2014) J. of Experimental Botany 65:1939-1946

Nitrogen is abundant in the earth’s atmosphere but, unlike carbon, cannot be directly assimilated by plants. The limitation this places on plant productivity has been circumvented in contemporary agriculture through the production and application of chemical fertilizers. The chemical reduction of nitrogen for this purpose consumes large amounts of energy and the reactive nitrogen released into the environment as a result of fertilizer application leads to greenhouse gas emissions, as read more…

Tracing the Evolutionary Path to Nitrogen-fixing Crops

Delaux, PM, Radhakrishnan, G, Oldroyd, G (2015). Current Opinion in Plant Biology 26:95-99

Nitrogen-fixing symbioses between plants and bacteria are restricted to a few plant lineages. The plant partner benefits from these associations by gaining access to the pool of atmospheric nitrogen. By contrast, other plant species, including all cereals, rely only on the scarce nitrogen present in the soil and what they can glean from associative bacteria. Global cereal yields from conventional agriculture are dependent on the application of massive levels of read more…

Algal Ancestor of Land Plants was Preadapted for Symbiosis

Delaux, PM, Radhakrishnan, G, Jayaraman, D, Cheema, J, Malbreil, M, Volkening, J, Sekimoto, H, Nishiyama, T, Melkonian, M, Pokorny, L, Rothfels, C, Sederoff, H, Stevenson, D, Surek, B, Zhang, Y, Sussman, M, Dunand, C, Morris, R, Roux, C, Wong, G, Oldroyd, G, Ane, JM (2015) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 112: 13390-13395

Colonization of land by plants was a major transition on Earth, but the developmental and genetic innovations required for this transition remain unknown. Physiological studies and the fossil record strongly suggest that the ability of the first land plants to form symbiotic associations with beneficial fungi was one of these critical innovations. In angiosperms, genes required for the perception and transduction of diffusible fungal signals for root colonization and for read more…

Speak, Friend, and Enter: Signaling Systems that Promote Beneficial Associations in Plants.

Oldroyd, G (2013) Nature Reviews Microbiology 11: 252-263

Plants associate with a wide range of microorganisms, with both detrimental and beneficial outcomes. Central to plant survival is the ability to recognize invading microorganisms and either limit their intrusion, in the case of pathogens, or promote the association, in the case of symbionts. To aid in this recognition process, elaborate communication and counter-communication systems have been established that determine the degree of ingress of the microorganism into the host read more…

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